Volume 8, عدد خاص, Spring 2018

Non-qualitative Extremism of Moderation

Hameed Fadhel Hasan

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172347

Values of moderation in the Arab and Islamic communities suffer from the spread of ideas and values opposing them, particularly ideas of extremism which are the most fierce and dangerous. The few late years have witnessed a rapid spread of these ideas as a result of the failure of political regimes in achieving political, economic and human development necessary to move from the status of undeveloped communities to the level of civilized and developed communities. This continuous failure has resulted in the wide spread of the pictures and features of political, social, religious and economic extremism in these communities which have never been familiar with such ideas. On the contrary, historically, the Arab and Islamic communities are famous for their tolerance and the acceptance of all phases of variation. In light of this, the study focuses on how communities known for moderation and tolerance become today a medium for ideas that reject the other and renounce it from their political, social and cultural systems. Therefore, the study aims to identify the features of extremism and the factors causing this phenomenon which has become widely spread and is threatening our communities and the future of our generations. To achieve this objective, the study relies on a great number of studies and researches in various specializations. The findings of the study show that extremism represents a dangerous disease that leaves fatal consequences on human beings and states together. It prevents states from development and progress in the circles of creation and advancement. Therefore, all states, institutions and individuals should work together to get rid of the dangerous consequences of extremism. The study concludes by emphasizing the fact that confronting extremism starts by acknowledging the existence and spread of this phenomenon. Acknowledging this problem is the correct way to confront it utilizing intellectual, educational, religious and educational tools which work to remove the causes of this problem and resolve it using great state and public efforts. Hence, our communities would restore their bright picture of tolerance and moderation

Problems in reforming contemporary Islamic discourse

Amal Hindi Khazali

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 19-39
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172348

The importance of the religious discourse among the Islamic peoples, of which religion is one of the components of its well-established identity, including the growth of self-criticism of political and social reality, including the development of media and communication, Which has made the people involved in this discourse able to spread it on a large scale, and remains the most important reason for the decline of the Islamic discourse in some of the non-Salafist image, characterized by tolerance with himself and the other in favor of an extremist speech that promotes terrorist ideology or legislates and produces extremist Therefore, the subject of our research will be on the characteristics and characteristics of this extremist discourse and the reason for its spread, with reference to the innovative calls that seek to analyze this discourse and risk and instead seek to generate a positive and tolerant discourse on balancing the various aspects of life without exaggeration or

The Abstentious Discourse: Moderation and the Argument of Politics and Religion: A Study in the Emancipation of Concepts

Ahmed Ali Mohammed

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 40-58
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172350

Though moderation is the closest approach to the logic of political sociology and sound mind, the discourse of moderation suffers a lot in Islamic and Arabic reality from a chronic abstention if it is compared to its opponent, the discourse of extremity. This discourse seems more popular, prevalent, sustainable and expressive of reality which interacts with. This situation raises questions about the abstention of moderation discourse. Does the problem lie with the authorities and institutions which produce it? Or is it in its written and spoken text? Or the problem lies in the social environment that the discourse aims to redeem. The study reveals that one of the weak factors of moderation discourse lies in the ambiguity of the concepts that related to the phenomena of discourse and the interference between religious and political areas. The study aims at diagnosing the structural obstacles of political and religious moderation discourse. It also shows the effective factors of moderation discourse and its culture in social environment. The researcher depends on a theoretical aspect in his study. The analytical approach has been used as a main approach in addition to descriptive approach and the approach of analyzing the content. The study concludes that the moderation, in reality is the twining of free thinking. It is impossible to claim free thinking on the basis of guardianship over peoples’ mind and their thought. There should be a freedom of expression without censorship. So, it is important to distinguish between religious and political domain. The study draws the attention of decision makers to adopt a strategy of two parts for creating a suitable and productive environment of moderation.1-Developmental part: there should be a starting point for treating the extremity and crisis of reality through developmental programmes on the whole levels: social, political, economic with due attention to the youth’s sector. 2-Cultural part: there is an urgent need to popularize and adopt a sensible and monetary approach in all aspects of life: political and religious via sensible, free educational system far from the guardianship of authority and religious institutions.

Moderation: A Study of Enabling and Resistant Variables

Tagreed Hanoon Ali

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 59-76
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172353

This study is about the nature of moderation because of its importance in social studies in general and humanities studies in particular. Moderation is one of the important subjects that attracted the attention of Heavenly legislatures and different political ideologies that tried to explain its nature and apply it in human society from different social, political, and economic angles. Through moderation societies can achieve high development which can largely lead to the state of leisure. Due to this importance this study concentrates on the enabling variants to achieve moderation and those resistant ones. In our Islamic societies moderation in dogma, worships, and rituals is the main foundation of the state as it boost the dignity and power of Muslims and preserve the might of the Islam and lay the path for the progress of the individual and society.In spite of the importance of this concept in many fields its nature is still ambiguous because of its overlapping with other concepts which creates ambivalence in determining fundamentals and obstacles. This also cast shadow on the applications of this concept were obstacles counter it. This study, therefore, hypothesizes that moderation cannot exist properly in the presence of many obstacles and buffers. Basing on this hypothesis the significance of this study lies in that it provides the reader with deep knowledge about the enabling fundamentals that Islam as religion provides as far as moderation and its method are concerned. The rules of Islam are characterized by moderation and its intentional theory is capable of dealing with any obstacle obtruding in the application of moderation.The study uses the inductive method in the analysis of ideas and texts to trace the nature of moderation. The study also uses the historical and behavioural approaches because of their cognitive necessity. This study, therefore, is part of the theoretical studies in the social sciences. The study found that moderation secures political, security, economic, and social stability and enhances societal development. In return, moderation is affected by many factors, including extremism, excess, corruption, institutional weakness, regress of education, spread of joblessness, migration, and the rise of terrorist gangs. The study also found that moderation is one of the bases of Islam. The study recommends that moderation is not the responsibility of the state alone but a common and co-responsibility carried by all members of the community. The findings of this study can be benefited from in initiating further research in this topic and it is possible that the educational institution can incorporate moderation in their study curriculum.

Political discourse and his impact on the social structure and social moderation in Iraq

Laure Abi Khalil

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 77-108
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172356

Social coexistence and integration in Iraq are two basic things to build up a modern civil state that can end violent extremism and the crises that storm this state. In order to draw a policy to end violent extremism we should analyze the situation of the political discourse the subject employ in Iraq. This subject exists and moves within a sectarian and tribal pattern. This study draws a comparative analysis of two political subjects in Iraq, namely; Noori Al-Maliki and Saleem Al-Joubori.The study aims to draw a policy to a common life for all members of the society, reaching to the state of social integration. This study shall deal with an example of the legislative power, namely; the political discourse before the 2018 elections by comparing a speech of Noori Al-Maliki with another by Saleem Al-Joubori.The methodology used in drawing public policies and analyze political discourse is theoretical analysis concerned with drawing a strategy that can help in decision makers and the political and social elite to find solutions to social crises. We also used discursive content analysis to identify the causes of extremism.As a result of this analysis a table was devised to show the goals that are supposed to be used to construct a coherent society. We proposed a suitable strategy to achieve these goals. The role that decision makers are supposed to carry is the translation of these policies into concrete work plans and, then, issue and draw the applied plans in the various sectors of the state.We introduced aimed suggestions that activate the common language and goals in Iraq and present criteria to figure out solutions that help in achieving moderation in political discourse through the emphasis on the importance of sharing democracy, separation of religion from state, and emphasis on the efficiency of a technocratic government functioning according to the principles of good governance. We also called the religious and symbolic elites to orient and monitor the political discourse by establishing a national agency to counter violent extremism. One of the most important solutions this study presents is admitting the principle of peaceful alternation of power which is based on admitting the possibility of exchanging positions between the government and resistance. The rotation of power between government and resistance . This can lead to a regeneration of political eleites in power which can encourage these elites to work with integrity to serve the popular base such as not taking advantage of power for personal interests. Also power should be based on constitution and shackled by necessity. The constitution, as such, can fence legally the ruling agencies as a sort of control. Otherwise they may loose their legal existence and become material oppressive procedures.

The constructive intellectual dialogue is based on moderation in contemporary Iraq

tariq hafed

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 109-129
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172358

Political moderation is one of the most important words in building societies and stable political systems because of its close connection with the order of life and relations of the people on the one hand and their relationship with the ruling authority on the other hand. In view of the current differences and disputes between different political and social forces, One of the most important demands is political. However, the strengthening of its existence is in need of foundations. Different views are priorities in terms of presenting one on the other. In this context, we argue that the promotion of constructive intellectual dialogue is the most important basis for political moderation, The main objective of the research is to focus on constructive intellectual dialogue. The most prominent problem facing the idea of dialogue in general is the dialectic that accompanies it in its negative meaning (the controversial dialectic). A party of the interlocutors to prove the right of his ideas and validity and therefore tries to oblige the other party to abandon his ideas and correct them, and for the purpose of overcoming this problem must be called dialectic in the positive sense (dialectic complementarity), which works to be the ideas of each party complementary to the other party, rely Methodology of the study On the historical approach and the analytical approach , The study did not neglect the importance of the comparative approach and try to resort to it whenever the need arises. The study has reached a number of results. Perhaps the most important of these is that dialogue to make a serious contribution to the promotion of political moderation in modern Iraq must be a studied scientific dialogue, with the need to move away from the protocol dialogue based on media courtesy between people who are originally not different There is no dispute between them that calls for dialogue. In other words, dialogue should be fruitful and must be held between the different and not between the agreed. The enemies, the opponents and the opponents are the first in dialogue. The success of such a dialogue will be a fruitful success. Positive The most prominent recommendations in this regard are the emphasis on the necessity of the parties to the dialogue to abide by its object and its obligations, as well as to agree on an arbitration committee acceptable to both parties for the purpose of resorting to it

Moderation of Religious and Political Discourse and its Role in a Strategy of Sustainable Security in Iraq

Falah Mubarak Bardaan; Their Shakir Mahmoud

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 130-149
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172360

Political and religious extremism in a multi-religious, multicultural, and multi political trends society is one of the most important factors that lead to the complication of the security situation and force the individual to forsake society towards a state of recoil into a sub-identity. Any security in an extremist society is undoubtedly unstable and temporary and collapses at any external or internal intrusion.Iraq witnessed new challenges after 2003 such as the predominance of the discourse of extremism and hatred at the expense of the moderate religious and political discourse and also the predominance of sub-identities and foreign agendas at the expense of national identity which created an unsecure and unstable environment full of violence and terrorism. Moderate religious and political discourse can melt down all sub-identities in one hotpot where loyality to country is over that to tribe, party or sect. This can contribute to boost peaceful coexistence . The study, therefore, seeks to formulate a strategy that can create a moderate religious and political discourse that can reach to sustainable security in Iraq.The study uses the methodology of the theory of moderation and middle path as the corner stone for a process of change to democracy and political and security stability. The situation in Iraq invokes many questions as to the true existence of peaceful coexistence in view of the uncontrolled security situation, political collapse, vanishing of the power of law, spread of crime of all kinds, predominance of the drive to violence, and the spread of political, administrative, and financial corruption in most of the joints of the state. Religious and political moderation is an ethical and social necessity especially in the societies in crisis like Iraqi society. Moderation in such discourses is facing many obstacles but still there is a chance for the return of the language of moderation if suitable mechanism existed to guarantee everybody's rights in order to restore mutual trust among all parties of Iraqi society and root deeply peace, security, democracy, and sustainable development. The study makes the following recommendations:•Work to establish the bases and full support for the complete change of Iraq to civil state and the separation of clergymen from politics.•It is necessary that universities and schools conduct a comprehensive campaign to raise awareness to boost the values of moderation , middle path, acceptance of the other, and rebuilding national spirit through a comprehensive and far reaching strategy.•Watch over Iraqi satellite channels and ban those channels that broadcast extremis and call to sectarianism and racism.•Key Words: moderation, Religious Discourse, Sustainbale Security, Iraq Studies

The Dialogue of Civilizations as an Alternative to the Theory of the Clash of Civilizations An Analytical Study on Roger Garaudy's Moderate Global Project

Abbes Aoumr; Khaoula khamri; Mohammmed Woeed Mohammed

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 150-165
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172364

time, especially with the growing phenomenon of Islamophobia and the Islamic world conflict with Western countries. This is the topic of the moderate discourse represented by the world cultural project presented by the philosopher Roger Garaudy. This topic, which has long been the subject of controversy among thinkers who have spoken and took sides as supporters and rejectionists for a variety of reasons related to the nature of Western racist thought towards Islam.In the light of the importance of the topic and the problems it poses the above mentioned questions shall be explored in a kind of analytical archival approach through the vision put forward by Roger Garaudy. We will shed light on the nature of the cultural theses and moderate thought of Roger Garaudy which combine different religions in order to defeat Western philosophies and extreme hostility in its view of Islam .The study and findings of the whole research are based on the theoretical analysis of the thought of Garaudy and his ideas as expressed in his books and research.The main findings of the research are:• The efforts of all parties must combine , whether at the level of Arab governments, or at the level of the peoples among themselves, or at the level of the cultural elites in their enlightening role. There is a need to support civil society organizations in spreading awareness of the dangers of takfiri thought on our Arab societies and identity and to highlight its origins and the truth associated with the policies of leaders of racist Western countries towards our Arab and Islamic homeland in order to educate our youth about these machinations.• Establishing an Arab-Islamic international community that brings together all specialists in education who are highly qualified to develop purely Arab and Islamic educational curricula away from Western dominance on how our educational system operates. Work should be done to establish Arab academies of a very high level working within the framework of coexistence between religions and civilizations and supervised by honest specialists to qualify young people in various fields who spread later to the rest of the Arab and Western countries in order to preserve the Arab Islamic identity and disseminate awareness of the importance of dialogue far from extremism and takfir and other types of fanaticism to clarify the true image of Islam, not that promoted by the Western media which is saturated, as Roger Garaudy says, with hatred to all that is related to Islam.Recommendation:The establishment of international conferences dealing with the psychological and intellectual aspects, which brings together all the prominent international elites in the field of psychology from all religions and different cultures and ethnicities, in order to discuss in practical terms the tools to achieve ways to preserve the identities of the peoples and how to get rid of the cognitive frameworks of the Takfiri discourse and the psychological negatives of destructive intellectual globalization and its dominant cultural activities on the cultures of vulnerable or developing peoples.

The political moderation and its impact in confrontation the harted speech in Iraq

mahmood azzo

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 166-183
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172365

The research takles political moderation and its important role in confrontation of harted speech in Iraq . and show the importance of the political moderation in political stability and what s result from of political pluralism and participation that make of preventing the harted speech to take benefit from employing its contribution of firming the idea of acceptance of another . the research has divided the subject through tow parts the first takles the theoretical frame of this research , the second discusses the political moderation to confront the speech of harted in Iraq

Moderation in the Iraqi Political Foreign Discourse towards Regional Crises after the Year 2011

Meziane Mames

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 184-209
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172367

The Middle East has witnessed a number of regional crises with intense complexity due to the great number of active agents involved especially because they went beyond the national borders to enter the regional domain. Hence, these crises have taken international dimensions. Due to the great number of these crises, the study has focused on the prominent ones such as those following what is so called the Arab Spring in 2011, namely the Syrian crisis, the Yemen crisis and the Gulf crisis in 2017. The latter is basically represented by diplomatic boycott with Qatar by Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain and other states such as Egypt, in addition to imposing economic blockade. Moreover, the Middle East region has encountered great challenges when Donald Trump became the president of the USA in 2017. This has created some crises which can be attributed to Trump’s foreign policy including the withdrawal from the nuclear agreement with Iran, declaring Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, moving the Israeli embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which represented a clear challenge to the Islamic World. This reality has imposed on Iraq the handling of these crises due to the ties Iraq keeps with the states of crises either geographically, historically or due to bilateral interests. On this basis, the Iraqi administration relied on the principles of good neighboring, brotherhood ties and interests with these states. Therefore, it refused to interfere in the internal affairs of other states, particularly the military intervention and all other coercive forms of interference. In light of this, the study aims to explore the stance of the Iraqi administration and its official discourse vis-a-vis the crises the Middle East region is passing through. To achieve this objective, the study adopts the descriptive analytical approach as it describes the existing situation and analyzes the relations among variables to be associated and explained to arrive at conclusions. The most important findings of the study include the fact that Iraqi decision makers have recognized the severity of these crises and their future negative consequences. Therefore, they adopted the non- alliance policy to avoid involvement.

Research Title: The religious-political ideological interdependence and its impact on social stability

Hayder Fawzi Sadeq

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 210-233
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172369

The political and religious discourse of the previous period has had a negative effect on the reality of the Islamic societies in general and the Arab world, especially the revolution we witnessed in the intellectual radicalization of a group of preachers in some Islamic schools as well as the political parties, which contributed to the rise of Extremist thought and the decline of tolerant thought, Which was met by a social revolution in the rejection of this thought and the emergence of moderate thought from other Islamic schools and moderate civil political parties, which adopted a preferential speech towards peaceful coexistence, political competition, equality, pluralism and respect for gender rights through the gradual change of culture in the direction of open public debate and participation and acceptance of the values of dialogue And the respect for diversity in general, especially with the activity of the media revolution and the Internet, which increased the flow of information and stimulate the culture of moderation in the academic and educational circles. It is worth mentioning that the moderate discourse, whether religious or political is not in itself considered to be hostile to religion, whether Islam or other religion, the policy of opening up and understanding the other and leaving hostility to the other parties is the key to encircling Hard-line trends and religious traditions, stimulating moderate political discourse, adopting moral standards, and leaving outdated inherited ideas that have become the backbone of political reform that has to do with fair government and equal citizenship.

The implications of the political discourse on the social peace in Iraq

موسى جعفر راضی; حسین حیدر جاسم; حیدر علوان حسین

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 234-262
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172371

This article has been tackled more specific study subject regards with the institutional political discourse problems in Iraq , especially during different periods of development the political systems which started from the monarchic regimes ,then the republican regimes under the rule of Authoritarianism after 1968 until to the political transformations which happened into a new democratic Iraq in 2003 . Therefore ,the political discourse has changed in the current stage for many reasons concerning with the nature of natural evolutions in social media and world wide web by the internet ,So the languages of discourses and speeches in various aspects have taken many kinds of communication forms in order to send different topics with several notions in the political and social and security conditions ;particularly with the huge challenges in fighting terrorism and achieving great triumph by all elements of military institution in the state of democracy after 2016 .As a result of that ,the article researched in the problems and the challenges which confronted the political discourse thoroughly, and research the reality of this discourse in the age of democracy in order to analyze the recent nature of guidance the public discourse in different aspects of public life ;furthermore making of public opinion poll to recognize the real facts for the future

The Administrative Responsibity for the Reparation OF Terrorist Damage and Its Impact on the Promotion of Peace Community

Arif Saleh Mukhli

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 263-294
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172373

Terrorism is one of the big challenges that face the authority, society and individuals as well. Its definition is difficult as it is far-fetched to encompass what kinds, forms the terrorist works are. The acts of terrorism result in great material and moral damage to the individual and the society. It rises that damage to the responsibility of the administration because it is responsible for providing security to the community. If this administration does not act that duty and was unable to foresight, prediction and prevention before it occurs, it is responsible for addressing the harmful moral and material effects. The responsibility here is on the basis of the law as in the revised law of compensation for those affected by military operations, military errors and terrorist operations No. 20 of 2009. But the compensation which the administration is obliged to pay through committees formed in accordance with the provisions of the law above does not represent a full compensation commensurate with the size of the damage when the conditions of legal damage and the type of damage are available. The monetary or financial compensation received by the victim is one of the most important factors that lead to reducing the effects of terrorism and the first step of security and stability as well as the role of compensation in the achievement of psychological satisfaction and readiness for peaceful coexistence and to develop the capacities of the society to spread human rights at the applied level and to promote a culture of coexistence based on solidarity and tolerance according to the standards of religion, national and international laws

Government protection of the displaced people and affection it in strange the moderation speech

Abdulbasit Jasim Mohammed

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 295-316
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172374

The affection of government protection of the displaced people and the financial compensation that is given to them of the terrorist actions in strange then the moderation speech and social development.The appearance of terrorist phenomenon in some country reflects its weak social community and reflects its failure to manage duties of its institutions, the reasons of terrorist´s appearance become to be obvious, these reasons made a fertile land to make the ideas of terrorist grow.Moreover, the displaced people were the most damaged victims with their lives and properties and the effects of this phenomenon effected on the most important humanity necessary which are their social program and their inside peace.So, it is important to focus on the factors of achieving the social peace through a legal study to know the affection of modern civil government protection of displaced people, and compensates them financially because of what the terrorist groups did to them, beside the legal military actions, especially the damage of forced displacement, in strengthen the moderation speech and the social development

Criminal protection of moderate religious discourse

Raad Fager

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 317-333
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172376

The legislator of the penal code criminalized certain acts of criminal will. The criminal code laid down the criminal rules for respecting religions to reach a moderate speech for the benefit of society and individuals. The Iraqi legislator provided for the punishment of the crime of assault violation of religious freedom the practice of religious rites and the misrepresentation or rights and freedom, or that may harm the rules of public or der and public morality. Which affects the practices against the national consensus. In order to strengthen the discourse of moderation among the members of society, the text of the legislation contains a penalty for anyone who commits acts against the speech moderation and criminalized the benefit of this religion and the law extends its authority over that most favored legal interest

The crime of electronic incitement and its impact in the letter of moderation

Zeyad nathem jasm; Mohamed Hasan Merei

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 334-363
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172377

The realization of community peace is the first task of the legislator. Hence, the task of countering incitement - in all its forms - is at the core of the legislator's work, especially incitement in some of the speeches based on the poison of honey. Naturally, the actor seeks to use the most effective means in the recipient. These tools are the most widely used electronic means, as they are the most influential in public opinion, private and most widespread, because of the huge variety of these means and their dominance over the time of users almost completely, hence the starting point of this research and how the legislator addressed incitement if it was by electronic means, and its impact In a moderate speech, yes And the second will be in the legal existence of electronic incitement through a statement of the hypotheses of its achievement and the basic elements that constitute it. The third topic will be in the legislative position of electronic incitement, and how was the legislator's response to this type of Criminal activity.

The constitutional guarantee of the right to work and its influence on reinforce the culture of moderation among young people

Abbas .M. ALFahl

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 364-382
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172378

The right of work is recognised by all the states according to their constitutions and international legalisations, which ensure that each person has the right to choose a suitable work or job that helps him to earn his living. The governments have to ensure the justice in opportunity of jobs among all the people without distinguish. Absence legislations of the right of work in Iraq and Syria increased the unemployment which became a serious problem. This study demonstrates the importance of the right of work and highlights the constitution’s guarantee for the concept of the right of work. In this study, the reasons of unemployment were presented and the unemployment’s role was also demonstrated in changing the violence cultures among the young people. In this study, approaches were proposed to resolve the unemployment problems and to reinforcement the moderation culture among the people. According to that, the author aims to bring the attention of the Iraqi and Syrian legislator to the importance of the right of work in the treatment of unemployment and reinforcement the moderation of culture. Where, the author adopted an integrated scientific approach to complete the frameworks of this study which included introduction and three chapters with conclusion. Dr. abbas Mfrg - University of Anbar

Moderation in Religious Discourse in Light of Rules of International Law

Muhammed Khalid Bira'a

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 383-403
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172379

Religion in its wider sense has been found to affect the general life of the individual and the society to find a common ground to whoever believes in the peaceful coexistence for the elevation of communities. However, the problem arising from the application of religious concepts lies in fanaticism concerning the reading and interpretation of religious texts in their narrow denotative meaning. It lies, moreover, in the projection of the surface meaning of these texts on the practical reality leading to a great gap between the intent of the religious text and the practical reality, notwithstanding the fact that human communities pass through continuous development on the technological, economic and legal levels. This would lead to a gap between the philosophy to be applied from the religious text and the legal text which seeks to keep pace with the public rapid developments. In this light, the study aims at highlighting the effect of religious extremism on the security and legal reality to focus on the reflections of extremism on laws in general and rules of the international law in particular. It aims, moreover, at investigating the mechanisms of the international law with a focus on the most important international accords that addressed the concept of moderation and renounced religious extremism to highlight the implications of these accords in the international peace and security. To achieve these objectives, the inductive descriptive approach is adopted focusing on the structural aspects of legal texts and the content of relevant international accords to analyze their content. The analytical practical approach is also utilized depending on the analysis of national and international legal texts to be compared with the practical reality. The data for analysis are collected from international agreements and the analysis of national legal texts to be compared with the practical experiments and applications of relevant issues. The findings of the study include; first, the attempt to arrive at a clear picture of the role of the international law in confronting cases of religious extremism to foster rules of moderation in all international and national laws. Second, when a suitable atmosphere is provided for religious extremism, this will definitely be reflected on coexistence within states and, as a result, on the bilateral coexistence. This, in its turn, will lead to affecting the international peace and security. Third, an emphasis should be placed on the educational teaching curricula and the audiovisual religious programs to be evaluated within an international working mechanism under the supervision of the UNESCO. Forth, the activities of all religious and ideological institutions should be monitored to be directed in such a way that suits the dissemination of moderation and peaceful coexistence

Religious Tolerance and its Impact on The Promotion of International Peace

Maher faisal saleh; Arkan hameed jodea

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 404-423
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172380

The communications revolution played a major role in bringing people closer together, but on the other hand, it affected the system of values and cultures, some of which were accompanied by an intolerant rhetoric calling for hatred and violence.Tolerance was therefore an important way to confront this dangerous phenomenon, because it carries the meaning of recognizing the other who is different from us politically, culturally or religiouslyThe importance of tolerance stems from the fact that it is an existential dimension. It is not possible to build a nation of citizenship unless tolerance is the basis for it, and through it, other concepts, such as pluralism and freedom of thought, are human values that cannot be relinquished or abandoned under any endeavor or circumstance.

Human Intellectual Rights under the International Law andtheir Role in Enhancing Peace and Development

Khalid Awad Hammadi

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 424-444
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172381

Human intellectual rights, as a right in embracing a religion, a sect, a thought, adopting an opinion and freely expressing it, are classified under the international law as included within political and civil rights. They are considered personal rights. While practicing those rights have ensued social implications to be taken into consideration to be moderate, restrained, and embracing the other. In other words, the prevalence of tolerance based on individual’s right in embracing what one believes in and what others believe in as well. Also, the prevention of compulsory imposition of an opinion or a creed over others. This will require sold legal bases to ensure the application of those rights, special procedures to grant those rights, and preventing their restraining by force in the future. All countries are obliged to ensue the required procedures to grantee their application in a way that enhances peace and development. This study investigates how far the international law had preserved those rights and their application by means of identifying those rights, specifying the reasons behind their violations, and the impact of those granted rights on the enhancement of peace and development requirements

The role of international law in activating transitional justice and promoting values of tolerance and peaceful coexistence

Ahmed Tariq Yassen; Jasim Muhammed Taha

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 445-474
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172382

The international law plays a vital role in fostering transitional justice and achieving social peace and security in the post-conflict stages. This can be achieved by determining the theoretical frames explaining the basis of transitional justice in the international law as well as determining its sources. Moreover, the international law addresses important procedural and objective aspects of the concept of transitional justice and its judicial and non-judicial mechanisms since it focuses on communities that pass through democratic transitional stages and because it is associated with international peace and security. In addition, it promotes the discourse of tolerance and renounces that of violence and hatred. The legal basis of the paths of transitional justice in the international law depends on three main pillars; the international law for human rights, the human international law and the international criminal law. These are normally interrelated since eventually they lead to outputs that pertain to safeguarding human rights and enhancing social peace and security. The problem lies in the real role of the international law when implementing transitional justice, fostering values of tolerance and peaceful coexistence, achieving discourse of moderation and renouncing hatred. It lies, moreover, in major barriers that play a negative role in the application of transitional justice and the true nature of the outputs for improving transitional justice in the post-conflict stages when it comes to building peace and achieving tolerance and peaceful coexistence. To analyze this problem and provide answers for all questions, the study depends on the analytical approach because, in order to understand the way the system works, we should know its environment. This is true because the political system represents a net of political reactions. It does not live in a vacuum, rather it lives in an environment or material or nonmaterial medium whereby it interacts with, i.e. it affects and is affected by this medium. The most important findings of the study include the fact that transitional justice faces many obstacles which represent a major cause of the inability to practically apply transitional justice. These obstacles include escaping total or partial punishment and international terrorism. In order to propose solutions for this problem, we perceive that the most important factor activating transitional justice in post-conflict countries is the necessity to make resolutions and legislations pertaining to transitional justice and reconciliation. Another important factor in this regard is the significant role of the supervision on the application of transitional justice through systematic coordination between regional and international parties supporting the efforts to achieve transitional justice

أثْرَ الاِعْتِدَالِ الدِّینِیِّ فِی مُوَاجَهَةِ الإِرْهَابِ الفِکْرِیِّ المُتَطَرِّفِ

نبیل مدالله العبیدی; سراج الدین ناظم العاصی

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 475-492
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172383

إِنَّ أَهَمِّیَّةَ الأَمْنِ الفِکْرِیِّ تَنْبَعُ مِنْ اِرْتِبَاطِهِ بَدِینٍ الأُمَّةِ, وَأُسَاسُ ذَکَرَهَا وَعُلُوُّهَا, وَسَبِّبْ مَجْدَهَا وَعَزِّهَا, وَمِنْ غَایَتِهِ المُتَمَثِّلَةُ فِی سَلَامَةِ العَقِیدَةِ, وَاِسْتِقَامَةُ السُّلُوکِ, وَإِثْبَاتُ الوَلَاءِ لِلأُمَّةِ, وَتَصْحِیحُ الاِنْتِمَاءِ لَهَا. وَقَدْ اِتَّفَقَتْ الأُمَّةُ, بَلْ سَائِرَ المَلَلَ عَلَى أَنَّ الشَّرِیعَةَ وَضَعَتْ لِلمُحَافَظَةِ عَلَى الضَّرُورِیَّاتِ الخَمْسُ, وَهِیَ: الدِّینُ, وَالنَّفْسُ, وَالنَّسْلُ, وَالمَالُ, وَالعُقَلُ, وَعَلَمُهَا عِنْدَ الأُمَّةِ کَالضَّرُورِیِّ, وَلَمْ یُثْبِتْ لِنَّا ذَلِکَ بِدَلِیلٍ مُعَیَّنٍ, وَلَا شَهِدَ لِنَّا أَصِلُ مَعَی یَمْتَازُ بِرُجُوعِهَا إِلَیْهُ, بَلْ عَلِمْتُ مُلَاءَمَتَهَا لِلشَّرِیعَةِ بِمَجْمُوعَةِ أَدِلَّةٍ لَا تَنْحَصِرُ فِی بَابٍ وَاحِدٌ

The rule of law, justice and moderation our way to peace, development and stability

عزالدین المحمدی

Journal of Anbar University for Law and Political Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue عدد خاص, Pages 493-509
DOI: 10.37651/aujlps.2018.172384

Conflict is often seen as something negative, but conflict is a natural part of our lives and when it is dealt with effectively it can give us opportunities to learn and manage , Conflict is the foundation of democratic states and pluralistic democratic societies can thrive when individuals recognize , Societies and organizations have a range of views and can manage differences and differences fruitfully. Democratic societies can manage this conflict in a peaceful manner by building strong institutions, separation of powers, rule of law, justice, civil society system partnership, free press, fair and fair elections and judicial accountability .The establishment of rule of law institutions is vital to ensuring the immediate security and stability of peace-building and strong justice institutions , Together with the accountable security system and law enforcement agencies, which fully respect human rights , Is essential for the restoration of peace and security in the immediate post-conflict period. It allows the perpetrators of crimes to be brought to justice, promotes the peaceful resolution of disputes and reinforces confidence and social cohesion based on equal rights and duties. The creation of such situations is equally important in achieving peace and security and sustainable community development.And the importance of the rule of law, justice and moderation in addressing individuals and communities to build a solid and strong ground to build peace and stability in the country of dear Iraq and the present society to open the channels of social and economic development and social loss and neglect is one of the important and sometimes direct reasons for the deviation of the compass of individuals towards deviation and adopt positions of violence and extremism Terrorism is ultimately the last, We are honored to present to your distinguished conference the summary of the research entitled (Rule of Law, Justice and Moderation Our Path to Peace, Development and Stability